Dr. Rick McKenzie
Associate Professor

IEEE Senior Member

Department of Modeling, Simulation
and Visualization Engineering

Department of Electrical and
Computer Engineering, Joint Appt.

Frederic (Rick) D. McKenzie, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Old Dominion University where he currently serves as Principal Investigator (PI) and Co-PI on projects involving software architectures for simulation, behavior representation in simulations, and medical modeling and simulation. To date, his projects in these areas have led to several publications relating research in modeling human-like intelligent agents including crowds, formal descriptions of distributed simulation architectures, objective measures of successful prostate surgery, and augmenting standardized patients. Many of these projects also involve virtual reality and scientific visualization. Dr. McKenzie received his Ph.D. in computer engineering from the University of Central Florida in 1994. Prior to joining ODU, he held a senior scientist position at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), serving as Principal Investigator for several distributed simulation projects. At SAIC he was a Team Lead on a large distributed simulation system. Before joining SAIC, Dr. McKenzie worked as a student researcher on research projects involving both NASA Kennedy Space Center and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. He has several years of research and development experience in the software and artificial intelligence fields, including object-oriented design and knowledge-based systems. Both his M.S. and Ph.D. work have been in artificial intelligence - focusing on knowledge representation and model-based diagnostic reasoning.




        ECE 405/505    Introduction to Discrete Event Simulation

        ECE 605    Engineering Systems Modeling

        MSIM 710/810    Advanced Discrete Event Simulation

        ECE 495/595/695    Topics in Medical Imaging and Simulation


Director of the Medical Imaging, Diagnosis, and Analysis (MIDA) Laboratory

Crowd Modeling

Prostate Surgery Evaluation

VR Laboratory

Surgical Glove Defect Visualization



Behavior Representation:

McKenzie, Frederic D., Mikel D. Petty, Paul A. Kruszewski, Ryland C. Gaskins, Quynh-Anh H. Nguyen, Jennifer Seevinck, and Eric W. Weisel. Crowd Modeling for Military Simulations Using Game Technology. SCS International Journal of Intelligent Games & Simulation (IJIGS). Submitted 2004.

Loftin R. B., Scerbo M., McKenzie F., Catanzaro J. Training in Peacekeeping Operations Using Virtual Environments. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. July/August, 2004, pp. 18-21.

Petty, Mikel D., Frederic D. McKenzie, Ryland C. Gaskins III, Eric W. Weisel. "Developing a Crowd Federate for Military Simulation." In Proceedings of the Spring 2004 Simulation Interoperability Workshop (SIW). Arlington VA, April 18 - April 23 2004, pp. 483-493. Nominated for a SIWzie Award (Best papers).

McKenzie F., Petty M., Catanzaro J. An Experimental Application of a Trait-Based Personality Model to the Simulation of Military Decision-Making. Information & Security: An International Journal: Special Issue in Modeling and Simulation. Vol. 12, No. 1, 2003, pp. 75-92.

McKenzie F., Scerbo M., Catanzaro J., Phillips M. Nonverbal Indicators of Malicious Intent: Affective Components for Interrogative Virtual Reality Training. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS): Special Issue on Affective Computing. Volume 59, Issues 1-2, July 2003, Pages 237-244.


Simulation Software Architectures:

McKenzie, Frederic D., Mikel D. Petty, and Qingwen Xu. Usefulness of Software Architecture Description Languages for Modeling and Analysis of Federates and Federation Architectures. Accepted to SCS Simulation journal in 2004. In Press.

McKenzie, Frederic D., Qingwen Xu, Quyhn-Ahn H. Nguyen, Mikel D. Petty. "Crowd Federate Architecture and API Design." In Proceedings of the Fall 2004 Simulation Interoperability Workshop (SIW). Orlando FL, Sept. 19 Sept. 23 2004. Nominated for a SIWzie Award (Best papers).

McKenzie, Frederic D., Hector M. Garcia, Quyhn-Ahn H. Nguyen, Jen Seevinck, Mikel D. Petty. "Mogadishu Terrain Generation and Correlation for Crowd Modeling." In Proceedings of the Spring 2004 Simulation Interoperability Workshop (SIW). Arlington VA, April 18 - April 23 2004, pp. 944-950.

McKenzie, F., A. Gonzalez, R. Morris. An integrated model-based approach for real-time on-line diagnosis of complex systems. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence (EAAI) Journal, v11, pp. 279-291, 1998.


Medical Modeling and Simulation:

McKenzie, Frederic D., Hector M. Garcia, Reynel Castelino, Thomas Hubbard, John Ullian, Gayle Gliva. "Augmented Standardized Patients Now Virtually a Reality." In Proceedings of the Third IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2004). Arlington VA, Nov. 2 Nov. 5 2004.

Hussein, Rania, Frederic D. McKenzie, Ravindra Joshi. Automating Prostate Capsule Contour Estimation for 3D Model Reconstruction Using Shape and Histological Features.  In Proceedings of the International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) International Symposium on MEDICAL IMAGING, February 14-19, 2004, San Diego, California USA.

McKenzie, Frederic D., Jose Diaz, Paul Schellhammer, Rania Hussein. Towards Statistical Inferences of Successful Prostate Surgery.  In Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE EMBS 2003). Cancun, Mexico. September 17-21, 2003.

 McKenzie, Frederic D., Rania Hussein , Jennifer Seevinck , Paul Schellhammer, Jose Diaz. Prostate Gland and Extra-Capsular Tissue 3D Reconstruction and Measurement.  In Proceedings of the Third IEEE Symposium on BioInformatics and BioEngineering (IEEE BIBE 2003). Washington , DC . March 10-12, 2003 .